In an ambitious attempt to curb carbon emissions, zero carbon offices have emerged as an effective method of conserving energy. In the last three to four decades climate has changed more rapidly than it be explained by natural causes. The planet is getting warmer, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are increasing, the sea level is rising and the ice sheets are melting away. This is not sustainable in the long run; hence international agencies such as the United Nations have a set of guidelines to which will facilitate the restoration of environmental sanity.
This report focuses on efficiency of zero carbon offices and be able to perceive an architectural model which will reveal the efficacy of such in relation to energy conservation. An architect should be able to evaluate decisions on occupancy and management at the beginning of the design process. Also the impact on the flexibility of different spaces, structural elements and servicing systems of different building elements are major considerations (UK Green Building Council, 2014).
On completion of this project, the scheme on zero carbon offices should outlay probable mechanisms of integration of energy efficiency and reduced carbon emission. Within the report problems during construction are a significant cause of missed energy targets, inclusive of poor strategic decision making and last minute alteration to the design are the challenges encountered. The zero carbon offices should address consumer flexibility and comfort so as to encourage more population to adapt to it without having to forgo any of their previous amenities. It should be consumer friendly so as to easy its acceptability to the housing sector.
A zero house building comprises of great energy efficiency and procures carbon-free renewable energy in quantities enough to offset the annual carbon emissions linked to its operations. Globally governments are including climate mitigation and adaptation measures to their agendas so as to reduce greenhouse gas emission (GHG). The real estate sector contributes to 30% of global emissions and over 40% of the world’s energy. Yet it has also been identified as the most cost-effective sector in which to potentially reduce emissions, even showing that several measures would yield a net economic benefit (University of Cambridge, 2014).
The goal of climate policy should be to reduce the damages caused by greenhouse gases. In addition to mitigation policy to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, one can also reduce the damages causes by greenhouse gases by adaptation measures that reduce our vulnerability to climate change impacts. In countries such as China where they build an average of two billion square meters of new buildings every year, driven by population growth, urbanization, and unprecedented economic development. As such, the building sector already accounts for approximately 20% of China’s total principal energy consumption and 25% (GHG). In the next 20 years, Chinese cities are expected to add a further 280 million citizens, as China becomes 70% urbanized. As such, measures need to put in place for viable means of reducing carbon emissions. (C40 Cities China Buildings Programme, 2018).
What economic considerations should be adopted by countries when designing and adopting climate change strategies. There are numerous and well-studied types of market failures, but in the context of global climate change, two types of market failures reign supreme: negative externalities and public goods. Negative externalities arise when individual agents do not internalize the full cost of their activities. In the absence of climate policy, individual consumers and firms do not pay for the negative effects of their greenhouse gas emissions on the environment and economy. This results in a socially inefficient large amount of greenhouse gas emissions (Fowlie, M. 2012). The zero carbon offices (ZCO) are a cost effective method of destabilizing greenhouse emissions and efficiently conserving energy in cities around the globe.
“Buildings define our cities, where we as urban citizens spend 90% of our time, both at work and leisure. Yet through the energy we consume in them, buildings are also major contributors to the emissions responsible for climate change. In the rapidly growing cities of China, there is a huge opportunity to avoid the lock-in of future high energy use and emissions through rapidly adopting low-carbon design and retrofitting of buildings” (Mark Watts, 2018). The above quote from C40 cities executive director emphasizes that human development and expansion should be compatible with the environment in such way there is a balance in emission and its absorption in the surrounding.
There is also a genuine concern how old buildings can be mechanized to be more energy efficient. It has to be carried out in a way that will reduce harm to the environment. The cooperation and population occupying offices should be encouraged to adopt means such using building materials that are eco-friendly for repairs. Also adoption of lighting and heating means derived from renewable sources such as Solar. This reduces the burden of overdependence in fossil fuel which impacts negatively on the atmosphere.
1.1.2 Building more energy efficient buildings
When designing the blueprint of (ZCO) it is easier to conceptualize on modalities which will be responsible for sustaining energy consumption and emissions than it is to set measures for already existing buildings. The majority of the current population using office spaces do not poses the means to which they can improve upon their immediate environment; there is lack of general knowledge and awareness. People all over should innovative simple, cost-effective yet effective means of adapting to renewable sources of energy.
Leon Glickman a professor in architecture and mechanical engineering develops aerogel panels to improve insulation and software packages to guide architects in retrofitting of existing buildings and the creation of new ones around the world. He focuses on thermal insulation especially controlling heat flow and and its loss through walls. One such technique is to use aerogel, teaming up with MIT professor of materials science and engineering Lorna Gibson, he has evolved a fire-resistant insulation panel. This nanosized holes capture air molecules, reducing heat transfer through the walls so that warm or cool air will remain in a space, thereby lowering the need for mechanical systems (Calechman, S., 2015). This would go a long way in reducing energy normally consumed in by coolers and air conditioners and ensure there is near zero emission of (GHG).
Glicksman adds that finding a functional panel remains something of an imperative. Along with new and existing construction, there’s a need for affordable insulation. In countries such as India and North Pakistan, some people can’t afford heating or cooling units. Not only are homes adversely affected by extreme temperatures, but schools have to shut down for months in the winter. Panels would serve two roles; they would enable schools open and improve upon people standard of living. The application of cost-effective type of insulation system could significantly change the educational system in that specific part of the globe. It would remedy the harsh climatic conditions experienced in winter and summer without much negative impact to the surrounding (Calechman, S. 2015)
1.1.3 How to build for the predicted climate change
Extreme weather events are expected to become more common as the climate changes – so more storms, floods, droughts and heat waves. So there is need to developing a suitable model to be able to cope with the current predictable climatic changes. The industry needs to undergo a deep cultural transformation based on values more aligned to planetary health. Currently buildings are vulnerable to climate change. Now more than ever there an alarming risk of collapse, significant loss of value and decline in health initiated by climate change. What materials will be in the supply chain? There is need to explore opportunities in creating genuinely circular economies for building components and materials, so our industry creates close-to-zero waste (Kate de Selincourt, 2018).
In the case of rains, it has been focused that there be increase in frequency and intensity of rain and an architect Joseph little thinks that the possibility of seriously designing and retrofitting buildings should be considered. One such measure is primarily building pitched roofs with wide overhangs and deep box gutters on commercial buildings as well as domestic ones (Joseph Little, 2018). This will facilitate proper drainage and channeling of runoff into subsequent water tunnels. As, as expected, climate change makes the summers hotter as this century progresses, overheating in buildings is likely to become an increasingly serious cause of ill health and even mortality. Although there is a misconception that low energy houses will be hotter in summer, in reality insulation and airtightness are also valuable tools for keeping them cool and comfortable during hot weather. The heat recovery ventilation, which recovers heat from outgoing stale air and uses it to pre-heat incoming fresh air, they can be kept more comfortable. By using use heat recovery when it’s colder outside than inside; turn heat recovery off if it starts getting too warm indoors. . And when it’s hotter outside than in, you can turn the heat recovery back on. This will keep heat out by returning it to outgoing air before it comes into the house.
1.1.4 How to build zero-carbon offices with limited resource
The direct and indirect benefits of climate strategies in terms of their impact on human health are especially important as climate change is now considered the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. With governments not having enough financial resources to offset these projects, sustainable and cost effective means should be devised in approaching construction of (ZCO). There is need to calculate social cost of carbon which the global damage from one more ton of emitted carbon dioxide equivalent. This can enable authorities determine the risk involved building of energy efficient buildings against the hazardous effects of uncontrolled carbon emissions.
An accurate measure of the social cost of carbon should include all costs of carbon and all climate change damages, both direct and indirect, including economic impacts, agricultural impacts, health, property loss, deaths. Changes in frequency of extreme weather events, infrastructure costs with rising sea level, climate refugees, intra- and international conflicts, accelerated extinctions, loss of biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem services also should be considered (Nordhaus, W. 2015). Using naturally viable methods seems one of the obvious means to reducing cost of construction. Natural ventilation can reduce building energy loads as air is moved through the building naturally when used with ceiling fans.
A thermal dynamic study has shown that under natural ventilation operation, cool fresh-air is brought in through orifices, warmed by the internal loads and exhausted. The internal temperature is maintained at 25.5°C where the natural ventilation can function below external temperatures of 20°C, accounting for increased air movement due to ceiling fans. Also another modality can be put in place while building ZCO with the limited resources. Radiant cooling system principally requires radiation heat transfer where by chilled water is circulating through ceiling panels to maintain comfort in a building. Radiant systems are more energy-efficient than air-based systems, they require less parasitic energy to deliver cooling. The higher operating temperatures mean that chillers can operate more efficiently if they are not required to serve other cooler areas. Since the floors are radiantly cooled, the air temperature can be higher to achieve the same level of comfort (Trevor S.K. Ng & incent S.Y. Cheng, 2016).
1.1.5 Why are sustainable materials more expensive?
Green building design includes the work of architects, mechanical, electrical, and structural engineers, and specialized green building consultants. It is often assumed that opting for green construction techniques requires increased financial output from the developer. As compared to traditional construction costs, the majority of green-certified buildings show 4% increase in upfront capital expenditure. Ideally the concept is about of ZCO is to limit negative impact on the environment without infringing on human convenience.
The cost of retrofitting some green upgrades into existing buildings can sometimes seem high simply because the new, more sustainable materials or equipment weren’t originally designed into the building. Building green doesn’t necessitate grand, sometimes expensive gestures, such as the installation of costly solar panels: it can be as simple as using recycled materials in construction, or repurposing the framework of an old building rather than constructing a new one. Considering the lower initial construction cost, adaptive reuse is often the most financially viable option. Plus, there are plenty of tax benefits available to those who build green not forgetting the increased value for rental and resale (Liz Austin, 2017).
1.1.6 What are the ways that we can promote the culture?
In order to create a culture there is need to educate the public on shared goals, values and beliefs. The office users should be encouraged to reuse and recycle of materials such as plastics. Also Incorporating natural light and views to ensure building users’ comfort and enjoyment of their surroundings, and reducing lighting energy needs in the process. Ensuring transport and distance to amenities are considered in design, reducing the impact of personal transport on the environment, and encouraging environmentally friendly options such as walking or cycling. This would be easily adaptable to occupants as it is convenient and constitutes other health benefits.
Recognition that urban environment should preserve nature, and ensuring diverse wildlife and land quality are protected or enhanced, by, for example, remediating and building on polluted land or creating new green spaces. This will encourage city dwellers to implement these measures in their spaces as they can perceive the direct benefits of such directives. This will go a long way in ensuring urban areas are more productive, bringing agriculture into the cities (World Green Building Council, 2019).
1.1.7 How to automatically maintain office thermal comfort
In office buildings, working in optimal conditions enables people to think and work better, and thermal comfort contributes not only to well-being but even to productivity. It is comparatively simple to design adequate HVAC systems from the inception stages, particularly when it comes to individual rooms or single office spaces. Matters become somewhat more complicated when considering the design of complete buildings, where each room and floor have quite different thermal comfort parameters: different number of people, different sizes, placing of windows may differ, diversity of the electronic equipment or the vicinity of special areas such as server rooms, central heating systems, staircases, and other service premises may alter the thermal requirements.
An HVAC designer, engineering simulation software can be used to simulate optimal thermal conditions. Inlet and outlet vanes sizes and positions can be optimized to minimize energy costs. Moreover, the SimScale cloud-based CAE platform can be used for preliminary virtual testing of ventilation systems, fans or entire building designs to easily visualize airflow and predict performance. (Fabbri, K, 2015).
1.1.8 How can we use the building in night times to generate energy?
Solar panels are similar to thermal panels difference is the Sunlight is used to heat up to water. Energy is stored in the molten salts, steam container, concrete blocks or thermic fluid. Heat energy is stored in the above mentioned which will be used to heat up the water during the night time, which in turn will be fed into turbine to generate electricity. Solar thermal power plant stores energy in cast iron cavity and it is used for remaining 16 hours as source of heat when sunlight is not available. Another simple mechanism is the use of an oversize solar photovoltaic system so that it generates more energy than what you need during the day. Store surplus generation in a battery array and use it during the night.
1.1.9 Ways in which the building can sustain social sustainability
Social sustainability is the means of establishing sustainable environs that which promote wellbeing by recognizing what people need and want in the places where they live and work. Socially sustainable modalities combine designs of the physical realm with design of the social world – infrastructure to support social and cultural life, social amenities, systems for citizen engagement, and space for people and places to evolve (Social life, 2019) Green building should offer its occupants practical modalities such as encouraging walking or cycling during the weekends to reduce carbon emission from using vehicles. In addition trees can be planted along pavements and roadsides so as to make it convenient and pleasurable while walking or running.
1.2 Replicating a good sustainable design
There is a general awareness on environmentally sustainable construction models. Authorities and real estate companies are quite in agreement on mitigating ways of translating sustainable designs of green building to a reality. Though there are financial woes, after many studies it is ultimately expensive to continue constructing in the manner carried out in the past. With the current technology and research in the construction industry, there are several methods of replicating viable and sustainable design models. Feasibility studies have dived deeper into the consequences of some of the options and outlines clearly what can be improved so as to maximize energy conservation and limit carbon emission. Ultimately superior and cost-effective designs will stand out as the models of choice.
How can we overcome restrictions?
Buoyancy-driven stack ventilation is a natural ventilation mechanism. Cooler air enters the building at low level, is heated by occupants, equipment, heating systems and so on, becomes less dense and so more buoyant and rises through the building to be ventilated to the outside at the top. The effectiveness of stack ventilation is influenced by; the effective area of openings, the height of the stack, the temperature difference between the bottom and the top of the stack and pressure differences outside the building. Where ventilation is needed high up in the building, this can require the addition of ventilation stacks that achieve the height necessary to create a pressure difference between the inlets and outlets. Designing natural ventilation can become extremely complex because of the interaction between the stack effect and complex building geometries and the distribution of openings. Requiring complex analysis using specialist software analysis systems such as computational fluid dynamics (Designing Buildings Ltd. 2019)
1.2 The research question and justification
‘How can build zero-carbon offices and utilize materials that are newly introduced to the construction industry to lower the cost of environmentally sustainable construction?
Main problem: With governments not having enough financial resources to offset climate change adaption strategies then sustainable and cost effective means should be devised in approaching construction of (ZCO). Tremendous impact of the construction industry has become obvious considering aspects like resource deterioration as well as congestion of landfills. This calls for development of building materials and techniques that have minimal or zero negative effects to the environment.
Justification: The construction industry is characterized by a high material intensity due to the heterogeneous mix of construction materials and components inherent in buildings and the related construction and demolition waste streams. Efforts in practice as well as new architectural methods are undertaken to analyze current construction materials and to foster the development of new construction materials, paying respect to the requirements set by the need for a sustainable development. Therefore ecological aspects attached to construction materials production comprise required characteristics of materials in order to avoid negative ecological impact.
The main problem for this research is how to utilize new construction materials to build zero carbon offices with reduction in relation to cost and sustainability of the environment. Thus this research will explore on viable modalities used in building materials development that are sustainable and cost effective and are applicable in construction of (ZCO). Zero carbon offices and be able to perceive an architectural model which will reveal the efficacy in relation to energy conservation. As earlier stated on completion, the scheme on zero carbon offices should outlay probable mechanisms of integration of energy efficiency and reduced carbon emission. Within the report problems during construction are a significant cause of missed energy targets, inclusive of poor strategic decision making and last minute alteration to the design are the challenges encountered. The zero carbon offices should address consumer flexibility and comfort so as to encourage more population to adapt to it without having to forgo any of their previous amenities. It should be consumer friendly so as to easy its acceptability to the housing sector.
1.3 Research Questions
Research question 1: How can new constructions of zero carbon office buildings in the UK are built using alternative materials?
Sustainable building approach is considered as a way for the building industry to move towards achieving sustainable development taking into account environmental, socio and economic issues. Practicing sustainability refer to various methods in the process of implementing building projects that involve less harm to the environment that is, prevention of waste production, increased reuse of waste in the production of building material and, waste management, beneficial to the society, and profitable to the company. To achieve a sustainable future in the building industry, suggests adoption of multi-disciplinary approach covering a number of features such as: energy saving, improved use of materials, material waste minimization, pollution and emissions control.
There several ways in which the current manner of building offices can be controlled and improved to make it minimally hazardous to the environment without reducing the useful output of construction activities. To create a competitive advantage using environment-friendly construction practices, the whole life-cycle of buildings should, therefore, be the context under which these practices are carried out (Abidin, N.Z et al., 2010).
Research question 2: Can current offices in the UK replace its components to an alternative material for better performance?
Globally, governments are setting strategies to improve upon existing buildings to meet their carbon reduction targets, with the continuous rise in carbon emissions and the increasing prices in energy necessitates cost-effective measures of cutting down on energy consumption. Nature can help us limit global warming to 2°C, through conservation, better land management, and restoration of ecosystems. And we can do it at a lower cost than most other solutions. Natural climate solutions that include reforestation, managing forests better, and soil conservation practices, can provide up to 37 percent of the needed carbon removal between now and 2030, an absolute must to reach ambitious climate goals. And natural climate solutions can deliver these climate benefits at a low cost: a third of them cost at or below $10 per ton CO2 (David. B et al., 2011).
Property owners and local governments are retrofitting millions of older buildings in a bid to cut down on energy use and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These retrofits are the most cost-efficient way to combat climate change and save on rising power bills, according to analysts ranging from the McKinsey Institute to the International Energy Agency. An example is Melbourne, Australia plans to reduce energy consumption in 1,200 of its office buildings by the end of the decade. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency is running a “Battle of the Buildings” in which 245 facilities compete to save the most on their utility bills through energy efficiency improvements (David. B et al., 2011). It is effective in job creation; resilience to future climate change and keeping operating costs low, all at once. This calls for inexpensive yet efficient mechanisms to equip existing offices with modalities that are ecologically sound.
1.4 Aims and objectives
The majority of the current population using office spaces do not poses the means to which they can improve upon their immediate environment; there is lack of general knowledge and awareness. People all over should innovative simple, cost-effective yet effective means of adapting to renewable sources of energy. This research aims to explore techniques in building and materials production that are economically viable to be used in realizing ZCO. Through this a pragmatic model can be actualized and, further replicated in the UK building industry.
Objective 1: To review materials that are currently used in office buildings in the UK
The objective highlights the dominantly used materials in commercial buildings in urban centres which tend to be relatively tall (6 to 12 storeys is a typical city centre project) because of the high cost of land and the confinement of adjacent buildings and utilities. Planning requirements have a strong impact on the building form and its architecture, and in many parts of the country, it is a planning objective that commercial buildings are required to generate a proportion of their on-site energy use from renewable sources, e.g. photovoltaics, heat pumps, CHP, CCHP, as in the Palestra building near Waterloo, London. Steel in dominantly used to in multi-storey buildings for its ability to provide column free floor spans, efficient circulation space, and the influence of the site and local access conditions on the construction process.
The commercial sector demands buildings that are rapid to construct, of high quality, flexible and adaptable in application, and energy efficient in use. Steel, and in particular, composite construction has achieved over 70% market share in this sector in the UK where efforts to reduce environmental impaction are widely recognized. All steel construction uses pre-fabricated components that are rapidly installed on site. Short construction periods leads to savings in site preliminaries, earlier return on investment and reduced interest charges. Steel construction dramatically reduces the impact of the construction operation on the locality. Steel I is preferably used since its 100% recyclable, repeatedly and without any degradation, it can be reused, and the flexibility and adaptability of steel structures maximize the economic life of the building as it can accommodate radical changes in use, all of which are important in a drive to the circular economy (BCO, 2014).
Objective 2: To review the areas (?) in which construction industry can save the most energy
This objective explores measures that can be used in building to save on energy consumption. When designing the blueprint of (ZCO) it is easier to conceptualize on modalities which will be responsible for sustaining energy consumption and emissions than it is to set measures for already existing buildings. It is critical to incorporate energy efficiency measures in buildings in order to reduce energy demand. Improving the energy efficiency and comfort conditions of buildings in a cost effective manner requires careful consideration of many issues at the design stage. Energy conservation includes measure such as minimization of resource consumption, maximization of resources reuse, use of renewable and recyclable resources, protection of the natural environment, create a healthy and non-toxic environment, and pursue quality in creating the built environment.
Objective 3: To review the techniques used in replicated sustainable designs
Through current technology, architects have managed to develop sustainable models of constructing zero carbon offices. This objective focuses on reviewing techniques that can be translated to sustainable models both economically and environmentally. Feasibility studies have dived deeper into the consequences of some of the options and outlines clearly what can be improved so as to maximize energy conservation and limit carbon emission. Ultimately superior and cost-effective designs will stand out as the models of choice.
Objective 4: To identify the materials which are newly introduced to the construction industry and their environmental sustainability?
This objective explores recently developed materials, their environmental viability especially in relation to carbon emissions. It is essential to device technologies to produce building materials and products with minimum amount of energy and monetary expenditure. Choosing materials with low embodied energy will help to reduce energy consumed through mining, processing, manufacturing and transporting the materials. For instance, aluminum has a very high embodied energy because of the large amount of electricity consumed to mine the raw material. True low energy building design will consider this important aspect and take a broader life cycle approach to energy assessment.
Objective 5: identify the cost-effectiveness of the newly introduced sustainable construction materials
Buildings represent a large and long-lasting investment in financial terms as well as in other resources. Improvements of cost effectiveness of buildings is consequently of common interest for the owner, the user and society. Hence this objective looks keenly to extrapolate on currently available construction materials with sustainable yet economically sound margins. A building’s economic operation should be considered throughout the construction stage and also in terms of its maintenance and conservation throughout its useful life. In order to ensure that these objectives are achieved, the concept of life-cycle costing analysis (LCCA) will play significant roles in the economics of a building project. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is an economic assessment approach that is able to predict the costs of a building from its operation, maintenance, and replacement until the end of its life-time. The effective implementation of life-cycle costing involves utilizing a thoughtful, comprehensive design along with construction practices with selected environmental considerations.
Objective 6: Data collection
This research is based on investing the adoption of zero-carbon offices within the United Kingdom; it further dives into sustainable models that are replicable. Data collection is majorly based on examining building materials and techniques that are ecologically sustainable. Also data will be generated through the study of various mechanisms used in energy conservation. Thermal mass, or materials used to store heat, is an integral part of most passive solar design. Materials such as concrete, masonry, wallboard, and even water absorb heat during sunlit days and slowly release it as temperatures drop. Through analysis of different mechanisms that can be used to actualize ZCO, data collection will be centered on environmental and economic sustainability. More clarification will be in the methodology chapter.
Objective 7: Model development
The model development will replicate on running stimulation using Integrated Environmental Solutions (IES). With data in hand, the next step will be to convert the data so it can be used in decision making. Indicators and indices help us package data into a form that speaks to a relevant policy issue. The module offers the basic building blocks of indicators and indices, including frameworks, selection criteria and elements of a participatory indicator selection process. The objective being to development an original model which can be subjected to changes that optimize on energy conservation and environmental conservation. This will facilitate the identification of the effective techniques of reducing carbon emissions. This will ensure occupants will ensured of thermal comfort and use of natural measures on ecological preservation.
Objective 8: Generating data and analysis
The model on sustainable ZCO on being developed will be exposed to a series of checkpoints to ensure its eligibility when stimulated the results generated will be accurate and legit. This will help confirm that the techniques used will be sustainable and if implemented, is it effective or not as the simulated results can be compared to the original sets of results from the base case model results. An example is the floor plan should be oriented towards the sun, design the offices in such manner that frequently used spaces on orientated to maximum exposure of the sunrays. This will help confirm if this is the most efficient techniques in maximizing use of renewable energy, the conclusion from this will help develop more accurate recommendations.
1.5 Conclusions and recommendations
Conclusively the research gives practical solutions on different techniques of energy conservation in building zero carbon offices and an overall enhancement in environmental sustainability. By analysis the study and results, conclusions can be drawn to determine if the model is replicable if not what modifications can be implemented. Recommendations will also follow based on the strategies most suited in replicating ZCO in the UK. The challenge for designers is to bring together these different sustainability requirements in innovative ways. The new design approach must recognize the impacts of every design choice on the natural and cultural resources of the local, regional and global environments. These sustainability requirements will be applicable throughout the different stages of the building life cycle, from its design, during its useful life, up until management of the building waste in the demolition stage. This framework lays the groundwork for the development of a decision support tool to help improve the decision making process in implementing sustainability in building projects.
1.6 Insights and Benefits
The direct and indirect benefits of climate strategies in terms of their impact on human health are especially important as climate change is now considered the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. Sustainable building is considered as a way for the building industry to move towards protecting the environment. The promotion of sustainable building practices is to pursue a balance among economic, social, and environmental performance in implementing construction projects. If we accept this, the link between sustainable development and construction becomes clear; construction is of high economic significance and has strong environmental and social impacts.
With the growing awareness on environmental protection, this issue has gained wider attention from construction practitioners worldwide. Implementing sustainable building construction practices has been advocated as a way forward in fostering economic advancement in the building industry while minimizing impact on the environment. In order to reduce these detrimental impacts of construction on the environment and to achieve sustainability in the industry, three principles emerge: resource efficiency, cost efficiency and design for human adaptation. They form framework for integrating sustainability principles into construction projects right from the conceptual stage.
2 Literature Review
2.1 How to build a zero-carbon office with limited resource
2.1.1 Definition and significance
Current technology has demonstrated its ability to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in relation to construction. ZCO offers such a transition and greatly benefits both to the environment and society. Though existing technology which proves to solves GHG emissions the rather unresolved technicality is to increasingly accept that people must overcome a mix of political, psychological and political differences. ZCO is an architectural model that is highly energy sufficient and utilizes carbon-free renewable energy. It focus on the following, reducing internal heat loads, using efficient and responsive HVAC systems and focusing on chilled (heated) surface systems; addressing passive design through the building construction and integrating renewable energy supply systems into the building design (Phil Jones, Shan Hou et al, 2015).
Climate change is as a result of disconnecting from nature and the narrow view of materialistic gain from the environment. Human beings are separate from nature hence integrative means should be devised for mutual co-existence and maintaining a positive relationship. Modern offices should be built to zero-carbon standard and use low-carbon construction materials while existing offices need to be retrofitted to remarkably decrease energy demand. Zero carbon heating systems, such as heat pumps and solar thermal systems have been replacing previously uses of fossil fuels. They have also become common and people are more aware of their energy sources as well as the health and well-being benefits of renewable energy have become widely understood (Zero carbon Britain, 2017). This architectural model of constructing offices non- has been adapted by various countries, is sufficient prove that this is the future of renewable energy utilization.
2.1.2 Construction materials
With governments not having enough financial resources to offset these projects, sustainable and cost effective means should be devised in approaching construction of (ZCO). There is need to calculate social cost of carbon which the global damage from one more ton of emitted carbon dioxide equivalent. This can enable authorities determine the risk involved building of energy efficient buildings against the hazardous effects of uncontrolled carbon emissions. Energy and raw materials are essentially used in production of building materials. Raw materials include: stones, sand, timber and energy sources include electricity, coal, oil and gas, biomass. Energy consumption in the manufacturing and transportation of building materials is directly related to GHG emissions and other environmental consequences (B.V. Venkatarama et al., 2012).
Over exploitation of raw material resources and extensive use of energy-intensive materials can drain the energy and material resources, and can adversely affect the environment. It is challenging to meet the ever growing demand for offices especially in upcoming cities. There is need for sustainable building, energy efficient and environmental friendly measures in architecture. In order to achieve this, building materials should adhere to: energy conservation, use of renewable energy sources, minimize the use of high-energy materials, minimize transportation and maximize the use of local materials and resources and utilization of industrial and mine wastes for the production of building materials. To achieve net carbon emissions it is essential to device technologies to produce building materials and products with minimum amount of energy and monetary expenditure (Pappu A, & Asolekar SR er al., 2007).
Burnt clay brick are processed by burning (under high temperatures) already modeled clay where its minerals undergo irreversible changes imparting strength to the brick at the cost of high-energy input. Stabilized mud blocks (SMB) are an energy efficient and eco-friendly substitute to burnt clay. These are produced through compacting a mixture of soil, sand, stabilizer and water and after 28days the blocks can be used for wall construction. Compressive strength of the block greatly depends upon the soil composition, density of the block and percentage of stabilizer (cement/lime). SBM are remarkably energy efficient, do not require burning, 60–70% energy saving when compared with burnt clay brick. They can utilize other industrial solid wastes like stone quarry dust and it is easier to adjust the block strength by adjusting stabilizer content.
Metal such steel and aluminum is produced through raw material extraction, processing which involves melting to get the end product then transportation to building site. This is carbon intensive and poses devastating consequences to the environment. To reduce this tendency the life cycle performance of metal products can significantly reduce their production energy consumption mainly because repeatedly recycled metals can still maintain their properties. Other forms of utilising metal products without the full recycling process (which includes re-melting the old metal products and re-moulding them into new products) is to reuse existing metal structural components, such as steel columns and beams that still maintain their structural performance (B.V. Venkataramaet al., 2006). Also building-unrelated metal products, such as shipping containers, can also be adaptively reused in new building projects.
2.1.3 Energy conservation
It is critical to incorporate energy efficiency measures in buildings in order to reduce energy demand. Improving the energy efficiency and comfort conditions of buildings in a cost effective manner requires careful consideration of many issues at the design stage. Priority should be given to compactness of design, orientation, thermal insulation and air change management on the basis that they should not entail significant additional capital costs if addressed properly at the design stage, should not require active management by the householder, and should continue to deliver cost and comfort benefits throughout the life of the building (BPIE, 2013)
Since energy efficient and low-carbon heating and cooling systems and building shell improvements account for 63% of the potential energy savings (IEA et al. 2011), it is important to know which measures can play a central role in reducing CO2 emissions and increasing energy security. Building orientation is vital when it comes to maximizing the sun’s free energy and other aspects such as drainage and capturing scenic views. The Sun is a major factor in heat gain in buildings, which makes accurate orientation of the building a fundamental consideration in passive solar construction. The floor plan should be oriented towards the sun, design the offices in such manner that frequently used spaces on orientated to maximum exposure of the sunrays. Occupants will appreciate the sunrays in the winter and relief from the sun in the summer. Also horizontal surfaces of buildings receive the most intense solar radiation due to the high sun to deals with solar heat gain on these surfaces can be reduced by the use of light colored paints and green roofs (C. S. Ling & M. H. Ahmad et al., 2007).
Walls are fundamental when it comes to heat transmission, designing appropriate thermal insulation and depends on wall thickness, materials and finishes. Properties used in an insulting window systems are exterior cladding, insulating and structural elements, majority of insulating materials are bulk, reflective and foam. Benefits of insulating the building fabric are significant and include: reduced cost of heating and cooling in an office by about 50%, improvement of the comfort of office occupant, long life and low maintenance reduction of air infiltration and sound absorption (E. Sawyer & R. Krueger et al., 2011).
Window designing and glazing contribute to passive heating in the cooler winter months without affecting rise heat in the summer depending on the location, size and thermal quality. Window-to-wall ratio (WWR) should not exceed 2/3 of the envelope. The higher the window head, the deeper will be the penetration of daylight. Suitable height from floor to the bottom of window should to be 1.0 to 0.3 m. Window energy performance for material is determined by: insulation value (U-factor), air Leakage (AL), visible transmittance (VT) and solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC). The lowest window’s SHGC, the less solar heat it transmits, the greater it’s shading ability and helps in reducing cooling loads. The lower the U-factor, the greater a window’s resistance to heat flow and the better its insulating value, the lower a window’s AL rating, the better is its air tightness (G. Wimmers et al.,2009).
Office roofs require that the roof achieve a very high R-value which reaches to 0.75 in hot roof. It is covers surface with inverted earthen pots, using vermiculite concrete or using green roofs. In addition to, an ideal exterior surface coating of a building would have reflectance near 1, and absorptance near zero, and emissivity near 1 to radiate absorbed heat back to the sky. There are four types of insulated materials: expanded Polystyrene slabs, extruded Polystyrene slab, polyurethane / polyisocyanurate slabs & perlite boards. Spray applied Polyurethane is formed by mixing Isocyanate and Polyol to create insulation cover of the roof. It has highly efficient thermal insulation, great ease of application surface moisture resistance and low density of material thus light weight (E. Sawyer & R. Krueger et al., 2011).
2.1.4. Passive solar design
Thermal mass, or materials used to store heat, is an integral part of most passive solar design. Materials such as concrete, masonry, wallboard, and even water absorb heat during sunlit days and slowly release it as temperatures drop. This dampens the effects of outside air temperature changes and moderates indoor temperatures. Although even overcast skies provide solar heating, long periods of little sunshine often require a back-up heat source. Optimum mass-to-glass ratios, depending on climate, may be used to prevent overheating and minimize energy consumption. Avoid coverings such as carpet that inhibit thermal mass absorption and transfer.
Natural cooling uses outdoor air often can cool a building without need for mechanical cooling, especially when effective shading, insulation, window selection, and other means already reduce the cooling load. In many climates, opening windows at night to flush the house with cooler outdoor air and then closing windows and shades by day can greatly reduce the need for supplemental cooling. Cross-ventilation techniques capture cooling, flow-through breezes. Exhausting naturally rising warmer air through upper-level openings (stack effect; e.g., clerestory windows) or fans (e.g., whole-house fan) encourages lower-level openings to admit cooler, refreshing, replacement air.
2.2 Replicating a good sustainable design
The world has been seriously affected by unsustainable development and extensive consumption. Indeed, society now must rethink urban areas through evolving resource efficiency in cities with an increased focus on planning and making socially and economically attractive places, well-functioning spatial structures, and energy efficient systems. How cities are planned, built, and managed now will determine the result of our efforts to achieve sustainable and harmonious development tomorrow (UNEP, 2014). In this context of well-planned cities, buildings play a central role in contributing to energy efficiency and lower energy use. Well-designed policies and regulations are essential to achieve market changes.
The most effective way to reduce energy consumption in buildings is to adopt a systematic approach for improving energy efficiency in each type of building. To incorporate energy efficiency into designs of new and renovated buildings, and to utilize urban policies to support the process. Realizing these opportunities requires aggressive and sustained policies and action to address every aspect of the design, construction, and operation of buildings and their equipment around the world (UNDP, 2010).
Governments should concentrate on the most efficient and cost-effective approaches. Research from the UNEP Sustainable Buildings and Construction Initiative (UNEP SBCI, 2007) found that the most effective instruments achieve net savings for society, and that packages of measures combining different elements are desirable. The study identified policies that were both successful in reducing emissions and cost-effective.
2.2.2 Determining factors
Energy consumption in a building is governed by three main factors: climate, design and occupant factor. Buildings have associated with varying climatic conditions hence remaining a constant preoccupation in architecture throughout history. The variations in climatic dispositions across the world attract different approach in building development and its consequent demands for energy. An example is heating and cooling may be required during very cold or hot weather, thus affecting their energy demands respectively. It clearly indicates the influence climate imposes on buildings and human activities where the occurrence of favorable and unfavorable environment periods (Perez-Lombard & C. Pout et al., 2008).
Constructing an energy-efficient building is not just a matter of assembling a collection of the latest green technologies. Rather, it is a process in which every element of the design is first optimized, and then the impact and interrelationship of various different elements and systems within the building and site are re-evaluated, integrated, and optimized as part of a whole building solution. This approach iteratively enhances building performance through a process that involves all design team members from the beginning.
2.2.3 Sustainable building Principles
Sustainable building approach is considered as a way for the building industry to move towards achieving sustainable development taking into account environmental and socio-economic issues. The practice of sustainable building refers to various methods in the process of implementing building projects that involve less harm to the environment that is prevention of waste production. Sustainable building starts at the planning stage of a building and continues throughout its life to its eventual deconstruction and recycling of resources to reduce the waste stream associated with demolition.
- Reduction in resource consumption (energy, land, water, materials), environmental loadings (airborne emissions, solid waste, liquid waste) and improvement in indoor environmental quality (air, thermal, visual and acoustic quality).
- Minimization of resource consumption, maximization of resources reuse, use of renewable and recyclable resources, protection of the natural environment, create a healthy and non-toxic environment, and pursue quality in creating the built environment.
- The creation and responsible management of a healthy built environment based on resource efficiency and ecological principles.
2.2.4 Sustainable Implementation: A Framework of Strategies.
The main objectives are resource conservation, cost efficiency and design for human adaptation. Resource conservation means achieving more with less. It is the management of the human use of natural resources to provide the maximum benefit to current generations while maintaining capacity to meet the needs of future generations. Methods for minimizing material wastage during building construction process and providing opportunities for recycling and reuse of building material also contribute to improving resource consumption efficiency. As illustrated above there several measure used in energy and building material conservation (Abidin, N.Z et al., 2010).
With the fast development of the global economy, depletion of water resources becoming an environmental issue of the utmost concern worldwide. Building construction and its operations draw heavily on water from the environment. Growth in urban water use has caused a significant reduction of water tables and necessitating large projects that siphon supplies away from agriculture. The following are modalities of sustainable water conservancy, design for dual plumbing to use recycled water for toilet flushing or a gray water system that recovers rainwater or other non-potable water for site irrigation (Ortiz, O & Castells, F et al., 2010) Gray water is produced by activities such as hand washing, and does not need to be treated intensively as sewage. It can be recycled in a building to irrigate ornamental plants or flush toilets.
The construction project supply chain of developers, suppliers, manufacturers, design and construction teams are under increasing pressure from clients to minimize total project cost and consider how much a building will cost over its life cycle and how successfully it will continue to meet occupier’s requirements. The concept of sustainability as applied to the construction of buildings is intended to promote the utmost efficiency and to reduce financial costs. The effective implementation of life-cycle costing involves utilizing a thoughtful, comprehensive design along with construction practices with selected environmental considerations. Cost reductions may be possible by selecting less expensive building materials and reducing the amount of time required to assemble them on site, and assumes that these costs can be discovered.
Other means of cost reduction include: Identify opportunities to minimize initial construction costs, through use of modular designs and standardized components where these are compatible with high quality, distinctive architecture that is appropriate to its context. For instance, a standardized plan with uniform office sizes provides an organizational framework that can be reconfigured as required, even the company changes. The design should also support technological changes. Another is that the design should optimize the use of locally-available materials. In most cases, locally manufactured products are cheaper than their imported counterparts since their transport cost are not as huge and they do not come with import duty. One of the main purposes of a sustainable building is to provide healthy and comfortable environments for human activities. A building must accommodate the activities it is built for and provide floor-space, room volume, shelter, light and amenities for working, living, learning, curing, processing. Maintaining thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other enclosures should be one of the important goals of every building designer. Factors such day lighting, natural lighting and acoustical environment were previously discussed.
The sustainability requirements are to a greater or lesser extent interrelated. The challenge for architects is to bring together these different sustainability requirements in innovative ways. The new design approach must recognize the impacts of every design choice on the natural and cultural resources of the local, regional and global environments. These sustainability requirements will be applicable throughout the different stages of the building life cycle, from its design, during its useful life, up until management of the building waste in the demolition stage. This framework lays the groundwork for the development of a decision support tool to help improve the decision making process in implementing sustainability in building project.
The report consists of 6 sections starting with the introduction this consists of an overview of the different topics which will be covered throughout the report. Next is the Literature review’ which keenly focuses on the topics covered in the introduction in more depth, in addition past studies which have been reviewed and discussed. The third section of this report is the methodology which covers all the steps and processes involved to generate the results needed for this study, topics range from; data collection, model development and model verification. The fourth section covers the Results & Analysis here is where the results from the simulation done for this study is presented and analyzed according to the criteria set for this specific study. The following chapter after is the ‘5. Discussion here the results are discussed further by looking into further works that could be done and limitations of this study. A ‘6. Conclusion chapter will then conclude this research based on the simulated results. The final chapter of this research will cover the recommendations made based on the discussion and conclusion.
During the 1990s, atmospheric researchers and observers noted that biomes terrestrial biomes absorb CO2 in north hemisphere. However, the specific magnitude and level of carbon absorption has not been discovered after a period of 30 years later. The trends in the carbon cycle in the atmospheres are also taking different perspectives with harmful environmental effects. It was therefore essential to construct zero carbon offices using limited resources in order to reduce the amount of carbon. This project develops a model to represent how low carbon offices can be constructed using the IES software to provide the necessary data in making necessary changes to the existing structures.
This research is based on investing the adoption of zero-carbon offices within the United Kingdom; it further dives into sustainable models that are replicable. Data collection is majorly based on examining building materials and techniques that are ecologically sustainable. Also data will be generated through the study of various mechanisms used in energy conservation. Thermal mass, or materials used to store heat, is an integral part of most passive solar design. Materials such as concrete, masonry, wallboard, and even water absorb heat during sunlit days and slowly release it as temperatures drop. Through analysis of different mechanisms that can be used to actualize ZCO, data collection will be centered on environmental and economic sustainability.
The model for the low carbon office was developed to replicate the available data from the simulation model. Data collected was used after converting it to enable in decision making. Indicators and indices help us package data into a form that speaks to a relevant policy issue. The model provides the basic building blocks of indicators and indices, including frameworks, selection criteria and elements of a participatory indicator selection process. The objective being to development an original model which can be subjected to changes that optimize on energy conservation and environmental conservation. This will help in identifying effective techniques which can be used to reduce carbon emissions. As a result the users of the low carbon office will be assured of thermal comfort and use of natural resources in a more preservative way. The building model will be entirely be run on a mix of hydro power sawdust waste, wood chip, wind and solar. Heat generated by those hard-working servers will be converted into energy to home the homes nearby. The building will not take power from the grid or fossil fuels.
Materials for constructing the model will be recycled materials. Some of them include:
- newspaper wood
Much of the utilized paper can be recycled to produce and make the newspaper. The wood created in the recycling process is flame – retardant and water proof
- nappy roofing
Nappies and sanitary products can be recycled into fiber – based materials for construction i.e. tolls.
- Rekey blocks
These are bricks which are colorful which are made from old plastics. Used go divide outdoor areas or divide up rooms due to lightweight properties.
- Wine cork panels
Wall or floor tiles from recycled granulated cork with wine cork combination. The world consumes approximately 31.7 billion bottles of wine a year.
In the construction process, data obtained from observations and the drawing from the auto card will be used to build the model. Construction template should be looked into at the Building Template Manager. At this point each of the building construction elements can be altered according to its material construction breakdown. In the Systems materials you can find the required materials. Specific materials for this model are utilized in each and every step of the construction process. The measurements of the model will however change in order to fit the model structure being constructed.
In the construction of this model, specific data was collected after which some assumptions were made in the process of construction such as roofing. The roof was constructed and completed using ceramic tiles.
Setting up of weather data
The simulation data weather data that was used for this purpose is obtained from the secondary sources of weather records form an online downloaded file. The research also considered data which had reflected climate change. The data used was ideal since it would enable forecasting of the future changes in weather and climate.
The simulation weather data
It covers and analyses weather data ensuring data is correct and represents the tropical climate of Europe. Validation will have to ensure that this simulation is working in the intended manner. The table below shows monthly average minimum and maximum temperature. The temperature represents values across all months used to show consistence with little variation. This is anticipated as tropical regions experience hot and humid climate throughout the year without seasonal changes. The average maximum dry bulb temperature is 33.34o C and average minimum dry bulb temperature26.36o C
|Month||normal temperature (°C)||warmest temperature (°C)||coldest temperature (°C)||Precipitation normal|
Using the data collected, the IES software helped in developing the model structure of the floor of the office. The drawing of the floor model was subjected to scale in order to fit on paper. On constructing the walls of the model, a concrete of cement that has the ability to absorb carbon was used. Cement is a binding agent that holds other materials together and hardens. Cement is crucial in both small- and large-scale infrastructure and construction project in the world. We can offset CO2 large proportion produced in the process of cement manufacturing; the figure below represents the model floor of the office based from the auto card results.
The cement manufacturing industry accounts 5% production of CO2 globally, however When you expose concrete to air it undergoes carbonation naturally. In this process CO2 slowly reabsorbed into concrete structure and react Ca (OH)2 to form CaCO3. The concrete structure locks away carbon providing a long-term solution that is stable. This will also boost the strength of concrete by increasing its pore structure through its density. This is the reason why concrete made of carbon absorbing cement is used. In the life of a built structure the process emissions leads to a large percentage which can be approximated to be up to 25%. This amount of emission is related to the normal cement. Hence, during the production process, a product known as clinker can be used to absorb the excess carbon.
While building the walls, large spaces were left which would accommodate large windows and door for free circulation of air and enough ventilation of the offices. The spacious windows will also allow the natural use of sunshine light which help in reducing electric energy in the office.
In dividing the rooms of the office, rekey bricks were used. These are bricks which are made out of recycled plastics and therefore they have less weigh which will reduce the entire weight of the model. Despite the assumptions made, the roof of the model was constructed using sanitary products which had been recycled and converted to fibre.
In order to reduce the content of carbon, some considerations were made during the construction process. These considerations are essential in ensuring that the project becomes successful and reduce the carbon footprint.
The evaluation of the existing offices was done at early, four months before the start of the project. After the evaluation we saw the opportunity to reduce the carbon effects and usage improper usage on natural resources. We then decided to come up with a design of the model which would be used to represent the low carbon office with fewer effects.
Higher percentage of carbon is emitted by HVAC, it is therefore important to include other advanced aspects and materials which are essential in providing the heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems which will aid in the reduction of the amount of carbon emitted. The cooling systems were only being allowed to go on at pre -determined times of the day. Most preferably, it will only be put on when the day temperatures are observed to be high. On the other hand the heating systems will also be used when the office temperatures are extremely low. The model of the building was fitted with equipment which was used to detect and measure the quality of air.
All the structures within the model were constructed without thermal bridges. This provided continuous insulation within the model. All the walls of the model were insulated to become fireproof.
For the purpose of lighting, the model of the office was constructed with large windows and doors. These were kept open during the day to maximally use the sunshine for lighting. In addition, specific art was utilized to enhance the lighting in the office. The picture below represents how art was used to enhance lighting in the office. 40% approximate energy used is accounted from lighting. The office was also situated at a point that it would get maximum sunshine during the day
The model building was oriented along east – west axis maximizing south – facing and north facing glazing to utilize the sunlight offered during the day.
In designing systems that were efficient in the use and conservation of water, plumping equipment that prevent leaks or real water losses were installed in the water systems. The model also installed fixtures and appliances which would be used in ensuring that water was used efficiently. Structures for harvesting rainwater were also installed. The process helped to save 50% of water which was used. Water used in washing machines and flushing toilets was recycled and reused for other purposes..
Routes in reducing hydrocarbon fuel in building.
In reducing the amount of carbon, materials that do not emit much carbon were used such as recycled steel and timber. Timber is able to absorb much carbon and it was therefore used in framing. Recycled steel which embodies less carbon was also utilized for all the steelworks, and in some instances clad steel was also used. In enhancing the efficiency of the model structure, the rate of air leakage was reduced by rapid closing and opening to minimize time, increase envelop thermal insulation, reduce thermal bridging by using white light-colored sheeting which would reflect back light. The internal equipment installed was efficient in reducing the amount of light energy that was required. At the end of the construction, the remaining construction materials were recycled and used for various purposes. The timber structures were reused or burnt to produce power for the building. The broken concrete was used for constructing the bases for roads and the purlins, frames and rails were melted and to make new steel products. Solar panels were used in tapping solar energy which was used in heating water in the office. The solar energy was also converted to electrical energy which was used to run other electrical appliances. The figure below shows the installed solar panels which majorly used for heating purposes.
Carbon dioxides effects
Carbon is one of the greenhouse gases and when emitted, it increases the greenhouse effect. The rise in the amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere contributes to global warming and leads to climate change. it was therefore significant to make early preparations and begin the constructions early in order to get all the necessary materials ready to reduce the amount of carbon and create an environmental friendly office using limited resources. The usage of a low energy humidifier instead of the electrical energy humidifier such as HVAC reduces the amount of carbon in the building. HVAC systems need less amount of natural and electricity. Using these systems lowered the amount of electricity bills and also lowered the amounts of carbon. Continuous insulation in the model structure helped in reducing carbon and saved energy. It also provided vapor, air, water and thermal aided in thermal controls which simplified the construction process.
In lighting, it was realized that solar thermal lowers carbon gain, however, too much solar during summer causes overheating and increases the cooling need. On the other hand, too little solar during winter increases the need for heating. Solar films can control and reduce carbon by cutting energy expenditure by 30%. Using bright light colored interiors and Open plan offices finishes help in distributing light within the building during the day. High- performance systems of curtain walls with sunshades, light shelves and integrated increase light that is natural and daylight strategies reduce HVAC peak loads reducing the amount carbon.
The use of recycled materials has a significant contribution in the reduction of carbon. Recycled steel reduces 97% mining waste, water pollution 76% and air pollution 86% and thus greenhouse gas emissions are reduced.
Water saving strategies had a significant impact on carbon reduction and resource usage. Oriented water strategies such as harvesting rain water reduce significantly greenhouse gas emission and energy use. Rain water has low environmental carbon due to the fact that its not pumped to long distances. Rain water harvesting saves 50% outdoor water.
Renewable energy – walls or roof used in building for solar air heating, solar electric PV or water heating by solar eliminates demand for convectional energy
It was realized that the location of the model is also significant in reducing the amount of carbon the model of the building is strategically located at a lace which is near to public transport means. This will help to reduce as it discourages the use of private means of transport which contribute to carbon emission. The landscape of the location where the building is located influences the level of carbon buildup and impacts on the amount of carbon in the surrounding.
Buildings account for approximately 50% of total carbon emissions in the city and in major cities its 70%. To curb rise in global temperature to not more than 2o C we have to address the largest contributor of carbon mission.
Our ultimate goal by 2050 when 68% of the population of the world is expected to move to urban areas all building will use energy as much energy as the buildings generate only. This is according to World Building Council at COP 2015 in Paris.
The government should work together with the necessary stakeholders to find ways in which the existing structures can be remodeled to become efficient in the use of carbon and natural resources. Already existing buildings account for approximately 65% carbon emission. All the existing buildings should have been fitted with the right equipment to facilitate carbon reduction by 2030.
There is a major implication in future by changing the process in which new buildings ae built.
In order to reach carbon zero:
The usage of energy on construction of buildings should be cut to 85% from 50%. This implies that it is important to address the main concerns in relation to the use of energy. All the buildings that exist should be mandated to adopt a green strategy in all their activities beginning from energy use to carbon emission. Some of the features that these structures can adopt include light systems help in efficient utilization of the solar energy.
The structures also need to be fitted with proper and good insulation which means that air leakages are eliminated beginning from the floor to the roof. The structure should also be made of windows which reflect sunlight and reduce heat intake or cool instead of heat absorption.
The rate of contribution by man to global warming is high as human beings are continuously burning hydrocarbons for the production of fuels; this contributes to the high amount of carbon in the atmosphere leading to global warming and finally climate change and environmental degradation. Where more fossils fuels have been extracted it triggers the demand to go up hence increases in the prices. Most of these fossil fuels are locally extracted and some are imported leading to dependence. This leads to sensible political and economic cases for reducing fossil fuel consumption or hydrocarbon.
About half of burnt total fuel is accounted by buildings and the other half commercial buildings account for it. Reducing the amount of carbon in structures can be easily achieved when the idea is applied to huge structures constructed by members of REID steel and BCSA. Unless the construction of buildings places an emphasis on constructing efficient structures, then it may be difficult to achieve the 80% carbon reduction by 2050.
It can also be concluded that the model cannot rely on natural ventilation throughout the year to control the thermal states of the low carbon office. Hence it is necessary that there conditioning equipment in the room. But the equipment is only used in most on the night hours. Keeping the windows of the office open would also contribute regulation of internal temperatures as they allow free circulation of air.
Low carbon buildings created are frameworks and constructed with embodied reduced carbon materials, this improves the energy efficiency in those structures.
The project has been able to accomplish most of its objectives by identifying ways which assist in reducing the amount of energy of energy used. This can be done by using renewable energy sources, using recycled product for construction of the structure and conservation of the existing resources.
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